America’s First “Civil PAC”

#1.) What Is A Political Action Committee?

    The term “political action committee” (PAC) generally refers to two distinct types of political committees that can be registered with the Federal Elections Committee:

  1. separate segregated funds (SSFs)

  2. nonconnected committees.

About Separate Segregated Funds:

      SSFs are political committees established & administered by (profit or nonprofit) corporations, labor unions, membership organizations, or trade associations.  These committees can only solicit contributions from individuals associated with a connected or sponsoring organization.   

     Corporations, labor organizationsincorporated membership organizations are prohibited from making direct contributions or expenditures in connection with federal elections (2 U.S.C. §44lb).  These organizations may, however, sponsor a SSF (popularly called a “PAC”) which collects contributions from a limited class of individuals & uses this money to make contributionsexpenditures to influence federal elections 11 CFR 100.6.  As the sponsor of the SSF (i.e., its “connected organization”), the corporation, labor organization or incorporated membership organization may absorb all the costs of establishing & operating the SSF including soliciting contributions to it.   These administrative expenses are fully exempted from the Act’s definitions of “contribution” & “expenditure.” 11 CFR 114.1(a)(2)(iii).

        By reading the above sectionyou will more clearly realize why United States Senator Bernie Sanders has been championing “campaign finance reform” so adamantly for so many years, & why it is often said that “corporations buy elections“:

The second type of PAC:

Nonconnected Committees:

These PACs are not sponsored by or connected to any of the aforementioned entities, & are free to solicit contributions from the general public. [1]  These PACs are financially independent, which means they must pay for their own administrative expenses using contributions they are able to raise.  Although an organization may spend funds to establish or support a nonconnected PAC, these expenditures are considered contributions to the PAC & are subject to the dollar limits & other requirements of the Act.”

Why the Federal Elections Committee ruled that “Giving Money may be done as a form of Political Expression”:

An excerpt from the Federal Elections Committee court ruling “Buckley v. Valeo“:

    “A restriction on the amount of money a person or group can spend on political communication during a campaign necessarily reduces the quantity of expression by restricting the number of issues discussed, the depth of their exploration, and the size of the audience reached.  This is because virtually every means of communicating ideas in today’s mass society requires the expenditure of money. The distribution of the humblest handbill or leaflet entails printing, paper, and circulation costs. Speeches and rallies generally necessitate hiring a hall and publicizing the event. The electorate’s increasing dependence on television, radio, and other mass media for news and information has made these expensive modes of communication indispensable instruments of effective political speech.

Wild Willpower PAC is a Unique New Type of PAC called “Civil PAC”:

Wild Willpower is primarily focused upon spreading knowledge  using The First Amendment in order to help humanity “more wisely & efficiently manage resources in a way which will better serve the needs of humanity, animals, and the ecological needs of native ecosystems”, & also to teach “history & civil law” in such a way which inspires an appreciation for the vital importance of “the protection of human rights (aka “Civil Rights”).  This is evident via our primary works, which include:

We Are Operating Explicitly “For Non-Commercial Purposes”:

We are not “a commercially-centric organization” specifically because we do not wish to impose Admiralty Law (aka “Maritime Law” or “Martial Law”) on ourselves or other people.  This can be done because we are consistently working to help redesign our infrastructures in such a way that humanity will not remain absolutely dependent upon the economic system for the purpose of basic survival- Wild Willpower PAC has been mapping & plotting a course to get from “where we are now” to “where we need to be” for many, many years (see our national plan).

What is Admiralty Law?

Military government involving the suspension of ordinary law.”    – Google Definitions

    The above definition appears to be in accordance with the last line on The U.S. Marshal’s website describing “Admiralty”, which reads:  “The Supplemental Admiralty Rules take precedence over the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in the event of conflict between the two.

The beginning part of the U.S. Marshal’s website reads this: “Admiralty law or maritime law is the distinct body of law (both substantive and procedural) governing navigation & shipping, with topics including: waters; commerce; seamen; towage; wharves, piers, and docks; insurance; maritime liens; canals; & recreation.  Piracy (ship hijacking) is also an aspect of admiralty.

    The courts & Congress seek to create a uniform body of admiralty law both nationally & internationally in order to facilitate commerce.  The federal courts derive their exclusive jurisdiction over this field from the Judiciary Act of 1789 & from Article III, § 2 of the U.S. Constitution. Congress regulates admiralty partially through the Commerce Clause.  American admiralty law formerly applied only to American tidal waters.  It now extends to any waters navigable within the United States for interstate or foreign commerce.  In such waters admiralty jurisdiction includes maritime matters not involving interstate commerce, including recreational boating.

Let’s Take A Closer Look At The Word COMMERCE in Black’s Law Dictionary:

Intercourse by way of trade & traffic between different peoples or states & the citizens or inhabitants thereof, including not only the purchase, sale, & exchange of commodities, but also the instrumentalities & agencies by which it is promoted & the means & appliances by which it is carried on, & the transportation of persons as well as of goods, both by land and by sea.  Commerce is a term of the largest import.  It comprehends intercourse for the purposes of trade in any and all its forms, including the transportation, purchase, sale, and exchange of commodities between the citizens of our country and the citizens or subjects of other countries, and between the citizens of different states . The power to regulate it embraces all the instruments by which such commerce may be conducted.   Commerce is not limited to an exchange of commodities only, but includes, as well, intercourse with foreign nations &  between the states; & includes the transportation of passengers.  The words “commerce” & “trade” are synonymous, but not identical.  They are often used interchangeably; but, strictly speaking, commerce relates to intercourse or dealings with foreign nations, states, or political communities, while trade denotes business intercourse or mutual traffic within the limits of a state or nation, or the buying, selling, and exchanging of articles between members of the same community.

The U.S. Marshal’s website only cited this one source regarding the above description on “Admiralty Law”:,

a link to the Legal Information Institute at Cornell University, which goes on to read the following:

Admiralty law in the United States developed from the British admiralty courts present in most of the American colonies.  These courts functioned separately from courts of law & equity.”

    Before we continue, here’s a painting of one of the infamous British Vice-Admiralty Courts mentioned above courtesy 18C American Women:

1 Karl Anton Hickel, William Pitt addressing the House of Commons, 1793

These “British Admiralty courts which existed in the American Colonies” are very important to know about considering “The courts & Congress seek to create a uniform body of admiralty law both nationally & internationally in order to facilitate commerce“, as stated above!

In fact, theseVice-Admiralty Courts” are the inspiration of one of the most famous writings of  author, philosopher, & early American hero John Locke.  Locke’s works were well-known & frequently quoted by colonial leaders, being the most quoted authority on government in the 1760-1776 period prior to American independence.[2]  He stated the following on Vice-Admiralty Courts in his “Second Treatise on Civil Government:

Chapter 3, Of The State of War, Section 20 and Section 21:

.. where an appeal to the law, & constituted judges, lies open, but the remedy is denied by a manifest perverting of justice, & a barefaced wresting of the laws to protect or indemnify the violence or injuries of some men, or party of men, there it is hard to imagine any thing but a state of war: for wherever violence is used, & injury done, though by hands appointed to administer justice, it is still violence & injury, however coloured with the name, pretences, or forms of law, the end whereof being to protect & redress the innocent, by an unbiassed application of it, to all who are under it; wherever that is not bona fide done, war is made upon the sufferers, who having no appeal on earth to right them, they are left to the only remedy in such cases, an appeal to heaven.
Chapter 15, Of Prerogative, Section 168:
    The people have no other remedy in this, as in all other cases where they have no judge on earth, but to appeal to heaven: for the rulers, in such attempts, exercising a power the people never put into their hands, do that which they have not a right to do.
Chapter 16, Of Conquest, Section 176:
    …What is my remedy against a robber, that so broke into my house?  Appeal to the law for justice.  But perhaps justice is denied, or I am crippled and cannot stir, robbed and have not the means to do it.  If God has taken away all means of seeking remedy, there is nothing left but patience.  But my son, when able, may seek the relief of the law, which I am denied: he or his son may renew his appeal, till he recover his right.  But the conquered, or their children, have no court, no arbitrator on earth to appeal to.  Then they may appeal, as Jephtha did, to heaven, and repeat their appeal till they have recovered the native right of their ancestors, which was, to have such a legislative over them, as the majority should approve, & freely acquiesce in.

    “The injustice embedded within the Vice Admiralty Courts” was also referenced in Patrick Henry‘s Give me liberty, or give me death! speech to the Second Virginia Convention on March 23, 1775:

… we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on.  We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, & have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry & Parliament.  Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; & we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne…

How Did The “Vice Admiralty Courts” Become Established In The American Colonies?

The following is an excerpt from “How Counties Got Started In Virginia“, by Virginia Places:

Counties were not planned in advance to be part of the English settlement in Virginia in 1607.  The new colony was a private company’s investment, & was governed by the stockholders of the company until it went bankrupt & the charter was revoked by King James II.

James II

King James II:  A quote regarding his reasoning for converting to Catholicism: The divisions among Protestants & the necessity of an infallible judge to decide controversies, together with some promises which Christ made to his church that the gates of hell should not prevail against it… & there being no person that pretends to infallibility but the Bishop of Rome.
     The Virginia Company of London was managed by a council in London, originally appointed by King James VI & I.  The company sent its colonists to the New World without even announcing who would be the local leaders in Virginia.  When the Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery finally reached the James River, Captain Newport opened the sealed envelope with the London Company‘s instructions.

Colonists Landing At Jamestown

    Until 1624, the colony of Virginia was a business managed by the equivalent of a plant manager with a local oversight board.  The company’s “Board of Directors” was the London Company lead by its Treasurer, & those directors remained in England.
    Within the London Company, there were internal disputes between investors who wanted to maintain strict discipline over colonists as reflected in the “Laws Divine, Morall and Martiall.” 
    In 1619, the 11 small settlements elected representatives to the first General Assembly.  Each of the existing population clusters was allowed two representatives.  Starting with the 1619 meeting, the General Assembly handled executive, legislative, & judicial issues for the Virginia colony.  The assembly created the first local courts to handle small lawsuits in 1622.3
    After the Native American uprising of 1622, it was clear that the Virginia colony would never be profitable.  The colony might be an outpost of English culture & government in the New World, but the stockholders would not get a good return on their investment.  In 1624, King James VI & I took official control of Virginia by revoking the London Company‘s charter.  The General Assembly continued to meet after King James assumed control.
    Between 1624 & the American Revolution, Virginia was ruled as a royal colony of the king.
    In 1634 the elected legislature, with the approval of the appointed royal governor, chartered eight units of local government.  The term “shires” was used in the original act. Since then, those local governmental units have been described as “counties” – but the key law enforcer in most county governments is still known as the sheriff (derived from shire reef).
    The boundaries of future counties were drawn & then modified so most landowners in that jurisdiction could reach their county court sessions, where justices dealt with property issues & criminal accusations, in one day. The primary basis for drawing Virginia’s county boundaries was to make the courts accessible.
A map of boundaries of the first eight counties in Virginia:
boundaries of the first eight counties in Virginia, extending west of the Fall Line into the Piedmont

How “Vice Admiralty Courts” & “The Enforcement of Martial Law on Colonialists” Instigated The Revolutionary War:

First off, Virginia is not the only place which had these courts introduced to them.  The Virginia Company of London was one of two Corporations that were simultaneously founded by the royal families among the eastern shores of what would eventually become The United States.  There was also The Plymouth Company.  Here is the region they where both companies were originally chartered:

Plymouth & London territories

The Plymouth Company:

The Dutch have given many things to America: Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, sauerkraut, sleighing, skating, & a host of “vans” and “velts” who helped to build our nation, but perhaps their greatest contribution to America was the 11 years of freedom they gave The Pilgrims (aka “Separatists”)—crucial years that helped America’s founding fathers work out their philosophy of freedom & prepare for self-government in the New World.
Departure of Pilgrims from Holland
Around 100 people set sail from England on the Mayflower in September 1620.

Pilgrim Fathers & Mayflower

That November, their ship would land on the shores ofCape Cod, in present-day Massachusetts.


A scouting party was sent out, & in late December they landed at Plymouth Harbor, where they would form the first permanent settlement of Europeans in New England.  These original settlers of Plymouth Colony are known as the Pilgrim Fathers, or simply as the Pilgrims.

Pilgrim Clothers

The Puritans were part of a faction known asSeparatists‘, who believed The Church of England & The Roman Catholic Church had both strayed beyond Christ’s teachings by establishing rituals & hierarchies which were contradictory to the teachings of the Bible, & so they left the The Church of England to create their own denominations.  The Puritans & Separatists- although both sharing in disdain for the churches- had very different sentiments regarding ‘what they wanted”.

The Difference Between Puritans & Separatists:

Puritans sought to purify The Church of England from all Roman Catholic practices; their argument included that The Church of England was only partially reformed, & they sought to reform the Church from within, whereas the people distinctly known as ‘Separatists simply wanted religious freedom and freedom from religion (including- of course-religious persecution).  In short- Puritans sought to enforce “Biblical law” whereas Separatists sought freedom from enforcement of such laws.

How The Wampanoag Tribe became Persecuted:

    The Wampanoag population has been estimated between 50,000 to 100,000 at the time Europeans arrive, which brought along plagues which killed 2/3 of the population. Many others were captured & sold as slaves by the settlers.

April 1st, 1621, The Pilgrim-Wampanoag Peace Treaty is Signed into Law

Wampanoag Peace Treaty painting

The leaders of the Plymouth colonists, acting on behalf of King James VI & I, made a defensive alliance with Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoags. The agreement, in which both parties promised to not “do hurt” to one another, was the first treaty between a Native American tribe & a group of American colonists.  According to the treaty, if a Wampanoag broke the peace, he would be sent to Plymouth for punishment; if a colonist broke the law, he would likewise be sent to the Wampanoags.
Four years later, a Puritan by the name of Samuel Maverick, master of Noddle’s Island in Boston Harbor, arrived with two African slaves, thus beginning the infamous “Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade“; because the Puritans translated & enforced the Bible literally, the concept of slavery was often justified due to the Biblical story of Hem & Shem, found in Genesis 9:20-27:
20  And Noah began to be an husbandman, & he planted a vineyard:
21  And he drank of the wine, & was drunken; & he was uncovered within his tent.
22  And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, & told his two brethren without.
23  And Shem & Japheth took a garment, & laid it upon both their shoulders, & went backward, & covered the nakedness of their father; & their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness.
24  And Noah awoke from his wine, & knew what his younger son had done unto him.
25  And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.
26  And he said, Blessed be the Lord God of Shem; & Canaan shall be his servant.
27  God shall enlarge Japheth, & he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; & Canaan shall be his servant. 

slave trade

The Story of The First American Flag:

The pine tree had long been a New England symbol, & was depicted on the Flag of New England flown by colonial merchant ships dating back to 1686.  Leading up to the Revolutionary War it became a symbol of Colonial ire & resistance.  New England’s flag:

Flag of New England

The white pine found in New England, specifically the eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), with heights exceeding 150 feet, was highly desirable for constructing masts in shipbuilding.  Twenty years after arrival in the new world, the Pilgrims harvested & exported these pines as far as Madagascar.  Due to lack of supply of suitable lumber on the island, England reserved 24 inch (61 cm) diameter trees under The Mast Preservation Clause in the Massachusetts Charter in 1691.  The trees were identified by a Surveyor of the King’s Woods, who appointed Deputies to survey & place the broad arrow symbol on the tree from three hatchet slashes denoting property of the Crown.

Broad Arrow slashes

The statutes required colonists prior to harvesting trees from their property to have a King’s Surveyor mark the larger diameter trees with the broad arrow, & then to purchase a royal license to harvest the trees not marked with the broad arrow.  The colonists resented the strictures on the timber used for their needs and livelihoods.  Prohibitions were disregarded & they practiced what they called “Swamp Law”, where the pines were harvested according to their needs regardless of statutes- which led to increased hostilities between Deputies & Civilians.  More on this soon…

Moving forward & seemingly unrelated…

The timber rattlesnakeeastern diamondback rattlesnake both populate the geographical areas of the original thirteen colonies.  Their use as a symbol of the American colonies can be traced back to the publications of Benjamin Franklin.  In 1751, he made the first reference to the rattlesnake in a satirical commentary published in his Pennsylvania Gazette.  It had been the policy of Britain to send convicted criminals to America, so Franklin suggested that they thank the British by sending rattlesnakes to England.


Special thanks to Sambel-Captiva Conservation Foundation for the above photo of the Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake {Crotalus adamants} that Wild Willpower PAC is utilizing for First Amendment purposes.

The Colonialists Rallied Together to Overthrow The “Commercial County Constructs” Including The Sheriffs’ Deputies Who Enforced Statutes In Order To “Extract Wealth on Behalf of The Crown”:

In 1754, during The French and Indian War, Franklin published his famous woodcut of a snake cut into eight sections.  It represented the colonies, with New England joined together as the head & South Carolina as the tail,following their order along the coast.   Under the snake was the message “Join, or Die”.  Of course, “Join, or Die” doesn’t sound like a very funny “cartoon”,  but the irony was that no colonialist would ever talk like that- only the English, Spanish, & French empires would!  Franklin was trying to get all the colonialists of the separate Colonies “on the same page”, as in: “We’ve got to join together & send a ‘warning rattle’ & ‘be ready to strike to defend’ like the rattlesnake or we’re ALL going to die or have our grandchildren enslaved beneath British rule!”.  Franklin‘s “join or die” woodcut is the first political cartoon published in an American newspaper:

first political cartoon join or die by Benjamin Franklin

As the American colonies came to identify more with their own communities & the concept of liberty, rather than as vassals of the British empire, icons that were unique to the Americas became increasingly popular.  The rattlesnake, like the bald eagle & American Indian, came to symbolize American ideals & society, & was used as a symbol to rally the people against their common oppressors:

1765: the Stamp Act mandated the use of Vice-Admiralty Courts to prosecute violators of the law:

Angry Americans were outraged because matters before those courts were heard by royally appointed judges, not by local juries. (Source: “Admiralty”:

March 5, 1770, The Boston Massacre:

Escalations:  New Hampshire, 1772, “Pine Tree Riot”:

Continued enforcement of The Mast Preservation Clause statutes led to the Pine Tree Riot in 1772.   After being fined & refusing to pay for possessing trees marked with the broad arrow, a New Hampshire mill owner, leading other mill owners & townsmen, assaulted the Sheriff & his Deputy who sent to arrest the lead mill owner by giving them one lash with a tree switch for every tree which the mill owners were fined, cutting the ears, manes, & tails off their horses, & forcing them out of town through a jeering crowd.

December 16th, 1773, The Boston Tea Party:

As the American Revolution grew, the snake began to see more use as a symbol of the colonies.  In 1774,Paul Revere added Franklin’s iconic cartoon to the nameplate of his paper,  The Massachusetts Spy, depicted there as fighting a British dragon:

mass spy pic

Special thanks to for the above archive!  Here’s a closeup of the snake & dragon thanks to The Unfolding Journey:

Massachusetts Spy Detail

The Pine Tree was still a major symbol as well:

The pine was used on the flag that the Colonists flew at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775.  Given the pine tree’s significance to the Colonists & since the flag was to fly over Colonial warships, the pine offered an appropriate & ironic symbol due to it flying atop the very structure the British had sought to harvest the white pine for.  The historically accepted flag has a red field with the green pine tree in the upper left corner as depicted in John Trumbull‘s The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker’s Hill, June 17, 1775 painting:

Bunker Hill painting

June 17th, 1775, The Battle of Bunker Hill:

The Pine Tree Flag” becomes official:

The Pine Tree Flag” or “Appeal to Heaven Flag” features a the motto “An Appeal to God,” or, more usually, “An Appeal to Heaven”, & was used originally by a squadron of six cruisers commissioned under George Washington‘s authority as commander in chief of the Continental Army in October 1775.  It was also used by Massachusetts‘ state navy vessels in addition to privateers sailing from Massachusetts.

observe good faith

The design of the flag came from General Washington‘s secretary, Colonel Joseph Reed.  In a letter dated October 20, 1775 Colonel Reed suggested a “…flag with a white ground & a tree in the middle, the motto AN APPEAL TO HEAVEN” be used for the ships Washington commissioned:

Pine Tree Flag good

John Locke‘s “An Appeal To Heaven” phrase (mentioned above in the section regarding Vice-Admiralty Courts) succinctly connotes that “it is Heaven who a People appeal to” when forcible resistance is all that is left to be resorted to.

locke quote

“The Snake & The Pine Tree”; American Symbols:

In December 1775, Benjamin Franklin published an essay in The Pennsylvania Journal under the pseudonym American Guesser in which he suggested that the rattlesnake was a good symbol for the American spirit:

Benjamin Franklin on “the rattlesnake”:

I recollected that her eye excelled in brightness, that of any other animal, and that she has no eye-lids—She may therefore be esteemed an emblem of vigilance.—She never begins an attack, nor, when once engaged, ever surrenders: She is therefore an emblem of magnanimity (generosity) and true courage.—As if anxious to prevent all pretensions of quarreling with her, the weapons with which nature has furnished her, she conceals in the roof of her mouth, so that, to those who are unacquainted with her, she appears to be a most defenseless animal; & even when those weapons are shown & extended for her defense, they appear weak and contemptible; but their wounds however small, are decisive & fatal:—Conscious of this, she never wounds till she has generously given notice, even to her enemy, and cautioned him against the danger of stepping on her.—Was I wrong, Sir, in thinking this a strong picture of the temper & conduct of America?

In order to unify & officially separate from rule under The Crown, the Colonial leaders were urged to draft State Constitutions:

1776: The Purely Democratic State Constitution of Pennsylvania:

Pennsylvania created the most radical state constitution of the period.   Following the idea of popular rule to its logical conclusion, Pennsylvania created a state government with several distinctive features.  First, the PENNSYLVANIA CONSTITUTION OF 1776 abolished PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS for voting as well as for holding office.  If you were an adult man who paid taxes, then you were allowed to vote or even to run for office.  This was a dramatic expansion of who was considered a political person, but other aspects of the new state government were even more radical.  Pennsylvania also became a “UNICAMERAL” government where the legislature only had one body.  Furthermore, the office of the governor was entirely eliminated.  Radicals in Pennsylvania observed that the governor was really just like a small-scale king and that an upper legislative body (like the House of Lords in Parliament) was supposed to represent wealthy men & aristocrats.  Rather than continue those forms of government, the Pennsylvania constitution decided that “the people” could rule most effectively through a single body with complete legislative power.

Many conservative Patriots met Pennsylvania’s new design with horror.  When John Adams described the Pennsylvania constitution, he only had bad things to say. To him it was “so democratical that it must produce confusion and every evil work.”

The Declaration of Independence:

John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was unanimously approved on July 2.  Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version.

john adams

When Thomas Jefferson included a passage attacking slavery in his draft of The Declaration of Independence it initiated the most intense debate among the delegates gathered at Philadelphia in the spring and early  summer of 1776.  Jefferson’s passage on slavery was the most important section removed from the final document.  It was replaced with a more ambiguous passage about King George’s incitement of “domestic insurrections among us.”  Decades later Jefferson blamed the removal of the passage on delegates from South Carolina & Georgia, & Northern delegates who represented merchants who were at the time actively involved in The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

Jefferson’s original passage on slavery:

    He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither.  This piratical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the Christian King of Great Britain.  Determined to keep open a market where Men should be bought & sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or restrain this execrable commerce.  And that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people on whom he has obtruded them: thus paying off former crimes committed again the Liberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another.

Thomas Jefferson was accused of plagiarizing John Locke in certain sections of the Declaration of Independence by fellow Virginian delegate Richard Henry Lee.[2]

The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies were now thirteen newly independent sovereign states, & no longer possessions of the Scottish/British Empire. This declaration marks the birth of The United States of America.

An impassioned reading of The Declaration of Independence, performed by Morgan Freeman, Benicio del Toro, Kathy Bates, Whoopi Goldberg, Kevin Spacey, Mel Gibson, Michael Douglas, Renee Zellweger, Edward Norton, Winona Ryder, Graham Greene, & Ming Na:

Christopher Gadsden, Civil Rights, & The Second U.S. Flag:

Christopher Gadsden began his rise to prominence as a merchant & patriot in Charleston.  He prospered as a merchant, & built the wharf in Charleston that still bears his name.  He served as captain of a militia company during a 1759 expedition against the Cherokees, & was first elected to the Commons House of Assembly in 1757, which began a long friction with autocratic royal governors.  He addressed himself with outspoken support for the Declaration of Rights.  (Source:  E. Stanly Godbold, “Gadsden, Christopher”; American National Biography Online, February 2000.)

gadsden quote

In February 1776, South Carolina President John Rutledge named him a brigadier general in charge of the state’s military forces; where Gadsden played a primary role in defending against the British.  That same year, Gadsden designed the isecond “U.S. Flag”,

The Gadsden Flag:

It was also used by the Continental Marines as an early motto flag, along with the Moultrie Flag. designed the first flag that came to represent The American Colonies & what the “new government” would stand for: civil rights; this new government was designed to protect individuals who would get brought before the “criminal commercial county courts”- which assumed guilt rather than innocence:

Don't Tread On Me

The same year the Declaration was signed, Cornwallis left England in order to help keep the rebelling Colonialists “in line”, as England was indebted to the banks & needed to continue extracting wealth from Colonialists in order to keep their economy (built on the labor of Colonialists) afloat.

 In 1778, Gadsden was a member of the South Carolina convention that drafted a new state constitution.  That same year he was named the Lieutenant Governor, to replace Henry Laurens who was away at the Continental Congress.


Created with new rules at the opposite end of the political spectrum from Pennsylvania- in South Carolina, white men had to possess a significant amount of property to vote, and they had to own even more property to be allowed to run for political office.  In fact, these property requirements were so high that 90 percent of all white adults were prevented from running for political office!

This dramatic limitation of who could be an elected political leader reflected a central tradition of 18th-century Anglo-American political thought.  Only individuals who were financially independent were believed to have the self-control to make responsible and reasonable judgments about public matters.  As a result poor white men, all women, children, & African Americans (whether free or slave) were considered too dependent on others to exercise reliable political judgment. 


Massachusetts offered another way to answer some of the questions regarding “the role of the people” in creating a republican government.  When the state legislature presented the voters with a proposed constitution in 1778, it was rejected because the people thought that this was too important an issue for the government to present to the people.  If the government could make its own rules, then it could change them whenever it wanted & easily take away peoples’ liberties.  Following through on this logic, Massachusetts held a special convention in 1780 where specially elected representatives met to decide on the best framework for the new state government.

Definition of REPUBLIC, Black’s Law Dictionary:

A commonwealth; a form of government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the general body of citizens, and in which the executive power is lodged in officers chosen by & representing the people, & holding office for a limited period, or at most during good behavior or at the pleasure of the people, and in which the legislative power may be (and in modern republics is) intrusted to a representative assembly.  In a wider sense, the state, the common weal, the whole organized political community, without reference to tlie form of government; as in the maxim interest reipulliear ut sit finis litium.

Definition of REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENT, Black’s Law Dictionary:

A government in the republican form; a government of the people ; a government by representatives chosen by the people.

    This idea of a special convention of the people to decide important constitutional issues was part of a new way of thinking about popular rule that would play a central role in the ratification of the national Constitution in 1787-1788.

The concept of a “Republic” first became popularized with the Socratic Dialogue written by Plato around 380 B.C.:

The Republic discusses the definition of justice, the order & character of the just city-state, & of the just man[2]—for this reason, ancient readers used the name On Justice as an alternative title.

    In simplistic form, a true Republic does not have permission to do anything without a Court Order from a Civilian, & whenever a Court makes a decision, it mus be made:

  • In accordance with “rule of law“: the restriction of the arbitrary exercise of power by subordinating it to well-defined & established laws.
  • In common benefit to The People.
  • In righteous moral action.

There’s an audiobook of The Republic here:

It is common knowledge among historians that “Rome was a Republic before it was a Democracy, & the Roman Republic fell after being infiltrated under its Democratic form via being hijacked by an ancient wealthy Empire ruled by an aristocracy“.  “How this happened” is summarized in the video below:


1780: Gadsden is Arrested by Cornwallis:

After General Sir Henry Clinton returned to New York, the new British commander in the South, General Cornwallis changed the rules.  On the morning of August 27, he arrested about 20 of the civil officers then on parole, including Gadsden.


Thank you for the above picture of “Lord” Charles Cornwallis- “The Captain Hook of American history”.

They were marched as prisoners to a ship and taken to St. Augustine, Florida.  When they arrived, Governor Tonyn offered the “freedom of the town” if they would give their parole.  Most accepted, but Gadsden refused claiming that the British had already violated one parole, & he could not give his word to a false system.  As a result, he spent the next 42 weeks in solitary confinement in a prison room at the old Spanish fortress of Castillo de San Marcos.  When they were finally released in 1781, they were sent by merchant ship to Philadelphia. Once there, Gadsden learned of the defeat of Cornwallis‘ subordinate Banastre Tarleton at Cowpens & Cornwallissubsequent movement to Yorktown.

Gadsden hurried home to help the restoration of South Carolina’s civil government.


   Special thanks to for the above graphic of forgotten civil rights hero Christopher Gadsden.

How all this is relevant today becomes evident below.

The Legal Information Institute at Cornell University on Admiralty Lawcontinued:

With the Judiciary Act, though, Congress placed admiralty under the jurisdiction of the federal district courts.  Although admiralty shares much in common with the civil law, it is separate from it.  Common law does not act as binding precedent on admiralty courts, but it & other law may be used when no law on point is available.

Parties subject to admiralty may not contract out of admiralty jurisdiction, & states may not infringe on admiralty jurisdiction either judicially or legislatively.  Since admiralty courts, however, are courts of limited jurisdiction (which does not extend to nonmaritime matters), 28 USC § 1333(1), the “Savings to Suitors Clause,” does provide for concurrent state jurisdiction so that non-admiralty remedies will not be foreclosed.  Moreover, state courts may have jurisdiction where the matter is primarily local.

Under admiralty, the ship’s flag determines the source of law.   For example, a ship flying the American flag in the Persian Gulf would be subject to American admiralty law; and a ship flying a Norwegian flag in American waters will be subject to Norwegian admiralty law.  This also applies to criminal law governing the ship’s crew.  But the ship must be flying the flag legitimately; that is, there must be more than insubstantial contact between the ship & its flag, in order for the law of the flag to apply.  American courts may refuse jurisdiction where it would involve applying the law of another country, although in general international law does seek uniformity in admiralty law.

Just as the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure placed law & equity under the same jurisdiction in 1938, the 1966 rules subsumed admiralty.   Nonetheless, the Supplemental Admiralty Rules take precedence over the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in the event of conflict between the two.

How This Affects You & Everyone You Know:

First off, many Counties are CORPORATIONS.


An artificial person or legal entity created by or under the authority of the laws of a state or nation, composed, in some rare instances, of a single person & his successors, being the incumbents of a particular oltice, but ordinarily consisting of an association of numerous individuals, who subsist as a body politic under a special denomination, which is regarded In law as having a personality & existence distinct from that of its several members, & which is, by the same authority, vested with the capacity of continuous succession, irrespective of changes in its membership, either in perpetuity or for a limited term of years, and of acting as a unit or single individual in matters relating to the common purpose of the association, within the scope of the powers & authorities conferred upon such bodies by law.[3]

What evidence is there that “Counties are Corporations”?

Many are listed on Dun & Bradstreet Credibility Corps.; here are the URL links to just a small list of them:

L.A. Superior Court registered under Robin Sanchez

Another page on L.A. Superior Court

“Superior Court Reporting Services” in Washington, D.C. registered under “SHERI STEWART”

Superior Court of California in Ventura County registered under Sheila Gonzalez

(read more about Sheila Gonzalez in the L.A. Times)


“Superior Court of Pennsylvania” registered under John Musmanno in Pittsburg

“Superior Court of California” in Berkeley, California registered under Lori Rodekohr

“SUPERIOR COURT HOUSE” in Indio, California

“Superior Court of NJ” registered under “Bruce Piekarsky”

Why Is The Fact That Counties & Cities Are Corporations Relevant?

Because in the United States the prime directive of “the governing body of a corporation” or “commercial government” is different fromthe prime directive of a noncorporate government”.  Here’s why:

According to 1919 Supreme Court ruling Dodge v. Ford, “The purpose of a corporation is to make a profit for the shareholders, but a court will not interfere with decisions that come under the business judgment of directors.

Thus because “County Governments” are designed to facilitate COMMERCE, County Court  officials & municipal officers (police) operate beneath both Common Law (the protection of Constitutional Rights) AND Martial Law (commercial codes).  The Constitution of the United States mentions 3 areas of jurisdiction in which the courts may operate: Common Law, Equity Law, & Admiralty Law.  Each is described below, however this video provides an excellent introduction:

American Common Law:

American Common Law is based on what most people would call common sense- “Well of course that’s how things should be- it just makes sense!”  in fact- one of the most famous writings in American history is called Common Sense. by Thomas Paine– whose writings exemplify exactly why Common Law must remain intact; it is the “Checks & Balances” of the 3 jurisdictions, designed to prevent commercial codes (see Admiralty Law below) from circumventing The Law of The Land (The Constitution of the United States).  Common Law is designed to ensure that money is used “to regulate commerce” instead of being used “to enslave people beneath the often otherwise subversive laws of economics”.  Here’s an excerpt from Paine‘s famous pamphlet which circulated throughout the Colonies from 1775-1776, called Common Sense:

Mankind being originally equals in the order of creation, the equality could only be destroyed by some subsequent circumstance; the distinctions of rich- and poor.  Oppression is often the consequence… of riches.

Male & female are the distinctions of nature, good & bad the distinctions of heaven; but how a race of men came into the world so exalted above the rest, & distinguished like some new species- is worth investigating, & whether they are the means of happiness or of the misery to mankind… the evils of hereditary succession…

Men who look upon themselves born to reign, & others to obey, soon grow insolent (showing rude & arrogant lack of respect)… their minds are early poisoned by importance… when they succeed to the government they are frequently the most ignorant & unfit of any throughout the dominions.

Common Law includes “the common sciences to which we are all bound” (ie gravity, physics, ecology, resource management, etc.).  It is “the law of the land”, & in The United States of America, The Constitution of The United States is decidedly The Law of The Land.  Therefore, Common law is also “the protection of human Rights as described in The Bill of Rights“.

Under Common law, there must be “A Verified Complaint from a Damaged Party”:

As for “Common Law Courts” (which were adopted into the design of America from England through The Constitution), anytime someone is charged under the Common Law, there must be a “damaged party”. You are free under Common Law to do anything you please, as long as you do not infringe on the life, liberty, or property of someone else.  You have a right to make a fool of yourself provided you do not infringe on the life, liberty, or property of someone else.  For instance, when you cross over the state lines in most states, you will see a sign which says, ” BUCKLE YOUR SEAT BELTS – IT’S THE LAW. ”  This cannot be Common Law, because who would you injure if you did not buckle up? Nobody. Being made to buckle up is a form of compelled performance- but Common Law cannot compel performance.

Any violation of Common Law is a CRIMINAL ACT , & is punishable.  The stipulation, however, is that under Common Law the Officers must be able to present “a verified complaint from a damaged party”; if they are unable to present such complaint, then they went outside their jurisdiction, & the accused must not only be found innocent, but they also then have the Right to collect Restitution for damages & for “Personal Injury” via performing a “Civil Action”.

Definition of PERSONAL INJURY on Black’s Law Dictionary:

A non physical injury that occurs due to wrongful eviction, slander, false arrest or by violating the right to privacy of any person.

Equity Law

Equity Law is law which compels performance.  It compels you to perform to the exact letter of any contract that you are under.  So, if you have compelled performance, there must be a contract somewhere, & you are being compelled to perform under the obligation of the contract.  Now this can only be a civil action – not criminal.  In Equity Jurisdiction, you cannot be tried criminally, but you can be compelled to perform to the letter of a contract.  If you then refuse to perform as directed by the court, you can be charged with contempt of court, which is a criminal action.

A Bit More About Common Law:


Under the Common Law, every contract must be entered into knowingly, voluntarily, & intentionally by both parties or it is void & unenforceable.  These are characteristic -it must be based on substance.  For example, contracts used to read, “For one dollar & other valuable considerations, I will paint your house, etc.”


Many people today will argue that “Federal Reserve Notesbecause they cannot be exchanged for silver or gold– are not valid as a fiat currency– because there is ‘nothing of substance’ backing them as actual dollars.”  This argument is made because “Under the ancient “Law of Negotiable Instruments (“Law Merchant”), contracts must be based on substance (aka “a negotiable instrument”).  However, what many people have failed to see (for obvious reasons), is that Federal Reserve Notes are based upon substance; they are based upon the fact that “If you have your Rights violated, then you have a physical world system in place designed specifically to protect your Rights.”  This system is a system of substance, as it requires time, energy, labor, resources, & common defense (military, etc.) in order to be able to hold such system in place.

Federal Reserve Notes are backed by The Protection of Peoples’ Rights!”

Remember:  The United States of America was founded uponprinciple(fundamental truth) rather than mere “principal(profit for shareholders)– as European & Arabic royalties had enforced as “the law of the land” upon “gold mining slaves” even though *technically* Admiralty is supposed to be “the law of the sea”.

A relevant excerpt from “Mining in Ancient Greece“:

At its peak, Athens had over 20,000 slaves mining at Laurium.   At the request of Themistocles, they used the money from these mines to pay for a large navy.  This investment in the navy paid off in their development of a large trade network around the Mediterranean.



    “The protection of human rights” is codified throughout the United States Code.  The United States Code is a consolidation & codification by subject matter of the general & permanent laws of the United States.  The Code is prepared by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the United States House of Representatives. One such statute can also be found on The United States Department of Justice website:

7 Deprivation of rights

The Fourteenth Amendment also gives “Equal Protection of The Laws” to non-Citizens because our system is backed by the protection of human rights:

3 14th Amendment

When a Public Official takes office, they are required by law to perform a Constitutional Oath of Office.  Therefore, they are swearing “to uphold all peoples’ assumed rights”. 

Note: To report a Color of Law crime, you may contact the Color of Law Crimes Division on the FBI’s website:

FBI- Report Color of Law Crimes

Frequently Asked Question:

What About The Military & The Protection of Peoples’ Rights Overseas?

The last line of United States Code Perjury of Oath reads:

Perjury of Oath 4

Also, when a soldier joins the military, they must perform an “Oaths of Enlistment“, which reads:

I, _____, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to regulations and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. So help me God. (Title 10, US Code; Act of 5 May 1960 replacing the wording first adopted in 1789, with amendment effective 5 October 1962).

Frequently Asked Question:

What if a soldier violates someone’s rights, then claims they were “just following orders” or “just doing their job” in court?

Called “The Superior Orders Defense” aka “The Nuremberg Defense“, it was ruled that “I was just following orders” does not hold up in court.

Every soldier should know that when they are given an  unlawful order, that it then becomes their duty to “break rank” & disobey those orders.  The soldier may (possibly) be brought to trial in the military (admiralty) court for violating the Uniform Code of Military Justice & thus violating their Oaths of Enlistment, however the soldier could then utilize their inalienable “Right to Due Process (5th Amendment) in order to file an affidavit for a Citizen’s Arrest on any officers who according to their codes then deprived that soldiers’ rights under color of law“.  It is likely that all such soldiers are suffering a “deprivation of rights”, but that they have not been given sufficient training in order to realize what is demanded of their duty regarding upholding both the Common Law AND Admiralty Law (described below)– but never in a way which enables the Admiralty Law (commercial codes) to abrogate the “assumed rights” (14th Amendment) of any individual.  The prime directive of all U. S. Officers & their Appointees is “the protection of safety & human rights”.

Note:  When filing an Affidavit for a Citizen’s Arrest on an offending Officer, it is important to consider that the Officer may be suffering:

  • from lack of training
  • from abuse as a child
  • from fear that “if they don’t enforce the codes, they will be fired & won’t be able to afford to feed their family”

In such case, you may consider filing on behalf of the officer, as they too have become “damaged parties” caused by a personal injury to their rights via having become “subject to codes” that they themselves did not put in place but to which they had become accountable to & which adverse affected their safety, mental health, & well-being.

PERSONAL INJURYBlack’s Law Dictionary:

A non physical injury that occurs due to wrongful eviction, slander, false arrest or by violating the right to privacy of any person.

Where Common Law Meets Equity Law:


Historically, commoners were often duped into signing deceptive contracts: “You should have read the fine print”. Then the well-intentioned commoner would be made to go to court via a Civil Action performed by the author of the contract, & they would be made to perform to the exact letter of the contract.  Unfortunately, many people were hurt & abused by this way of “doing business”, which brings us to a type of legal remedy which may be provided in case of such circumstances called a Rescission of Contract, which causes “The unmaking of a contract by a court that deems it to be unfair and unjust.” (RESCISSION OF CONTRACT, Black’s Law Dictionary).

… & now, where Equity Law meets International (Commercial) Law:

Admiralty Law:

This is civil jurisdiction of Compelled Performance which also has Criminal Penalties for not adhering to the letter of the contract, but this only applies to International Contracts.  Now we can see which jurisdiction the seatbelt laws (all traffic codes, “victimless crime” statutes, etc) are under.   Whenever there is a penalty for failure to perform, but there is no “verified complaint from a damaged party”- THAT is Admiralty/Maritime Law & there must be a valid international contract in force. 

The “Valid International Contract” In Force:

Because the Wal-Mart located nearest you has been subcontracted into place beneath the (incorporated) City wherein it resides, & because that  City is subcontracted beneath the (incorporated) County, AND because you live in a different State than Arkansas, where, & the headquarters of Wal-Mart is located, “commercial codes” take effect in which all County & City Officials must adhere to & enforce in order to ensure Equity (contract) between the County, Wal-Mart , & China (& many other nations)– from where Wal-Mart has many of its products shipped in from.

How This Affects You:

Because Wal-Mart has products shipped in from China, there is a “hidden” international contract which you personally did not sign, but to which you are held accountable to under Admiralty Law.  This is why Cities & Counties are able to write “codes”, “ordinances”, etc. which Compel Performance and which simultaneously both abrogate & violate the Common (Constitutional) Law (ie “homeless harassment laws”, Arbitrary & Capricious building codes” “banning free speech within commercial districts”, etc.).  The international maritime contract which takes effect is connected to the receipt you receive following your transaction.  You are being governed beneath Admiralty Law because remember the U.S. Marshall’s website (above) states that Article III, § 2 of the U.S. Constitution enables “Court Officials to Operate Under Admiralty” when shipping, navigation, liens, or commerce, etc. are involved.


You must ask how we got into this situation where we can be charged with failure to wear seatbelts & be fined for it. Isn’t the judge sworn to up hold the Constitution?  Yes, he is. But you must understand the Constitution, in Article I, § 10, gives us the unlimited right to contract, as long as we do not infringe on the life, liberty or property of someone else. Contracts are enforceable, & the Constitution gives two jurisdictions where contracts can be enforced – Equity or Admiralty.


Your defense would be quite different in Admiralty Jurisdiction from your defense under Common Law.  In Admiralty, there is no court which has jurisdiction unless there is a valid international contract in dispute.  If you know it is Admiralty Jurisdiction, & they have admitted on the record that you are in Admiralty Court, you can demand that the international maritime contract, to which you are supposedly a party, & which you supposedly have breached, be placed into evidence.

Suppose you might say to the judge:

Well, I didn’t know that I got involved with an international maritime contract, so, in good faith, I deny that such a contract exists.  If this court is taking jurisdiction in Admiralty, then, pursuant to section 3-501 of your UCC, (Presentment), the prosecutor will have no difficulty placing the [alleged] contract into evidence, so that I may examine and [possibly] challenge the validity of the contract.

What they would have to do is place the national debt into evidence.  They would have to admit that the international bankers own the whole nation, & that we are their slaves.


The government set up a “colorable” law system to fit the “colorable” (fiat) currency.  It used to be called the Law Merchant or the Law of redeemable Instruments, because it dealt with paper which was redeemable in something of substance.  But, once Federal Reserve Notes had become unredeemable, there had to be a system of law which was completely “colorable” from start to finish. this system of law was codified as the Uniform Commercial Code , & has been adopted in every state.  This is “colorable” law, and it is used in all the courts.


One difference between Common Law & the Uniform Commercial Code is that in Common Law, contracts must be entered into (1) knowingly, (2) voluntarily, and (3) intentionally.

Under the U.C.C., this is not so.  First of all, contracts are unnecessary.  Under this new law, “agreements” can be binding, & if you only exercise the benefits of an “agreement,” it is presumed or implied that you intend to meet the obligations associated with those benefits.  If you accept a benefit offered by government, then you are obligated to follow, to the letter, each &  every statute involved with that benefit.  This is how a “City Corporation” is able to to write “City Codes” & “Ordinances”, & then enforce “punishments” for “not adhering to the letter of the contract in which you did not knowingly sign, & to which you had no choice but to agree upon due to the ecologically unsustainable conditions you were born into within the “purely economic” design of the County incorporations.


Every system of civilized law must have two characteristics: Remedy and Recourse.  Remedy is a way to get out from under that law, & you recover your loss.  The Common Law, the Law Merchants, & even the Uniform Commercial Code all have remedy & recourse.  If you go to a law library and ask to see the Uniform Commercial Code, they will show you a shelf of books completely filled with the Uniform Commercial Code.  When you pick up one volume and start to read it, it will seem to have been intentionally written to be confusing.  The Remedy and Recourse, however, are found in the first volume, at 1-308 and 1-103.


The making of a valid Reservation of Rights preserves whatever rights the person then possesses, & prevents the loss of such rights by application of concepts of waiver or estoppel. (UCC 1-308.7)

It is important to remember when we go into a court that we are in a commercial international jurisdiction.  If we go into court and say, ” I DEMAND MY CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS ,” the judge will most likely say, “You mention the Constitution again, and I’ll find you in contempt of court!” Then we don’t understand how he can do that.  Hasn’t he sworn to uphold the Constitution?  The rule here is: you cannot be charged under one jurisdiction, & defend under another.  For example, if the French government came to you & asked where you filed your French income tax in a certain year, do you go to the French government & say, “I demand my Constitutional Right?”  No. The proper answer is: THE LAW DOESN’T APPLY TO ME – I’M NOT A FRENCHMAN.  You must make your reservation of rights under the jurisdiction in which you are charged – not under some other jurisdiction.  So in a UCC court, you must claim your reservation of rights under (pursuant to) the [their] U.C.C. 1-308.

UCC 1-308 goes on to say:

When a waivable right or claim is involved, the failure to make a reservation thereof, causes a loss of the right, and bars its assertion at a later date . (UCC 1-308.9)

You have to make your claim known early.

Further, it says:

The Sufficiency of the Reservation – Any expression indicating an intention to reserve rights, is sufficient, such as “WITHOUT PREJUDICE.” (UCC 1-308.4)

Whenever you sign any legal paper that deals with Federal Reserve Notes (FRNs) -in any way, shape or manner – under your signature write: Without Prejudice UCC 1-308.  This reserves your rights. You can show, at 1-308.4 that you have sufficiently reserved your rights.

It is very important to understand just what this means.  For example, one man who used this in regard to a traffic ticket was asked by the judge just what he meant by writing “without prejudice UCC 1-308” on his statement to the court.  He had not tried to understand the concepts involved.  He only wanted to use it to get out of the ticket. He did not know what it meant.  When the judge asked him what he meant by signing in that way, he told the judge that he was not prejudiced against anyone ….  The judge knew that the man had no idea what it meant, & fined him an additional $25.00 for a frivolous defense.  You must know what it means.

WITHOUT PREJUDICE pursuant to UCC 1-308

When you see “Without Prejudice” UCC 1-308 in connection with your signature, you are saying:

I reserve my right not to be compelled to perform under any contract, commercial agreement or bankruptcy that I did not enter knowingly , voluntarily , and intentionally . And furthermore, I do not and will not accept the liability of the compelled benefit of any unrevealed contract or commercial agreement or bankruptcy.

Actually, it is better to use a rubber stamp, because this demonstrates that you had previously reserved your rights. The simple fact that it takes several days or a week to order & get a stamp shows that you had reserved your rights before signing the document.

What is the compelled performance of an unrevealed commercial agreement?  When you use Federal Reserve Notes instead of silver dollars, is it voluntary?  No.  There is no lawful money , so you have to use Federal Reserve Notes – you have to accept the benefit. the government has given you the benefit to discharge your debts with limited liability, and you don’t have to pay your debts. How nice they are!  But if you did not reserve your rights under 1-308.7, you are compelled to accept the benefit, and are therefore obligated to obey every statute , ordinance and regulation of the government, at all levels of government – federal, state and local.

If you understand this, you will be asked to explain it to the judge when asks. And he will ask, so be prepared to explain it to the court. You will also need to understand UCC 1-103 – the argument and recourse.


The Recourse appears in the Uniform Commercial Code at 1-103.6, which says:

The Code is complimentary to the Common Law, which remains in force , except where displaced by the code.  A statute should be construed in harmony with the Common Law, unless there is a clear legislative intent to abrogate the Common Law .

This is the argument we use in court:

The Code recognizes the Common Law.  If it did not recognize the Common Law, the government would have had to admit that the United States is bankrupt, & is completely owned by its creditors.  But, it is not expedient to admit this, so the Code was written so as not to abolish the Common Law entirely.

Therefore, if you have made a sufficient, timely, & explicit reservation of your rights at 1-308, you may then insist that the statutes be construed in harmony with the Common Law.

If the charge is a traffic, you may demand that the court produce the injured person who has filed a verified complaint.  If, for example, you were charged with failure to buckle your seatbelt , you may ask the court who was injured as a result of your failure to “buckle up.”

However, if the judge won’t listen to you and just moves ahead with the case, then you will want to read to him that last sentence of 1-103.6 which states:

The Code cannot be read to preclude a Common Law action.

Tell the judge:

Your Honor, I can sue you under the Common Law, for violating my right under the Uniform Commercial Code.” I have a remedy, under the, UCC to reserve my rights under the Common Law. I have exercised the remedy, and now you must construe this statute in harmony with the Common Law, you must come forth with the damaged party.

If the judge insists on proceeding with the case, just act confused & ask this question:

Let me see if I understand, Your Honor. Has this court made a judicial determination that the sections 1-308 and 1-103 of the Uniform Commercial Code, which is the system of law you are operating under, are not valid law before this court?

Now the judge is in a jam! How can the court throw out one part of the Code and uphold another? If he answers, “yes,” then you say:

I put this court on notice that I am appealing your judicial determination.

Of course, the higher court will uphold the Code on appeal. The judge knows this, so once again you have boxed him into a corner.

How Do You Know You’re In An Admiralty Court?

An excerpt from’s “Army Regulation 840–10: Heraldic Activities; Flags, Guidons, Streamers, Tabards, & Automobile & Aircraft Plates“, which designates the use of a “United States flag with golden yellow fringe” strictly to be used in “military courtrooms”:

military regulations courtroom flag

The Army flag which stands usually somewhere near the Magistrate (Judge) at the head of the courtroom:


The following is from the Small Business Administration’s website regarding the Uniform Commercial Code:

“If you are conducting business transactions outside of your state, such as borrowing money, leasing equipments, establishing contracts & selling goods, you need to comply with the Uniform Commercial Code.  
The UCC is a comprehensive set of laws governing commercial transactions between U.S. states & territories.  These transactions include borrowing money, leases, contracts, & the sale of goods.

UCC is not a federal law, but a product of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws & the American Law Institute.  Both of these organizations are private entities that recommend the adopting of UCC by state governments.  State legislatures may either adopt UCC verbatim or may modify it to meet the state’s needs. Once a state’s legislature adopts & enacts UCC, it becomes a state law &  is codified in the state’s statutes.  All 50 states and territories have enacted some version of UCC.

 All Corporations must sign into the U.C.C. Connect through the Secretary of State’s website, which reads:

The Secretary of State’s office is the central filing office for certain financing statements and other lien documents provided for in the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC). Filing with our office serves to perfect a security interest in named collateral and establish priority in case of debtor default or bankruptcy.

All Corporations AND Non-Profit Corporations are required to sign in through The Secretary of State’s Website in order to file under The Uniform Commercial Code, and because a single code within The Uniform Commercial code, UCC 1-308“, demands that “a third party” must demand a “reservation of rights” in order to have those rights explicitly acknowledged unto that particular party, Wild Willpower does not agree to the Terms & Conditions & Conditions of Signing in Under The Uniform Commercial Code on The Secretary of State’s Website because we believe that assuming all peoples’ rights, privileges, & immunities, as lain out within The 14th Amendmentis a good thing, which is why we built The Campaigns & This Organization as “a non-commercially-centric PAC”!

Our Motivations Include:

“Getting Back to Nature”

is very important to us, but we’re not “turning our heads away” from the rest of the world; instead we’re building

to teach people to “peaceably & legally” work to “fix the system” via

Explaining the System’s Original Design,

teaching about and how to file

Powerful Court Orders,

how to better comprehend

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure,

& how certain

United States Codes,

& Powerful Code Combos

may be used to

De-Bug The System from Within“.



In The Words of Abraham Lincoln from the Opening Paragraph of The Emancipation Proclamation:

   All persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.

Lincoln Memorial Quote

Ladies AND Gentlemen!!!

& now, please let us introduce to you America’s 2 “homeless hippie heroes” who collectively hitchhiked the U.S.A. over seventeen years while “Homeless for Humanity” to bring WIld Willpower to the world, singing & street performing to stay alive while sleeping behind dumpsters, beneath pine trees– whatever it took– “Campaign Organizer” Alexandra “Distance” Wilson AND her beloved “Treasurer”Kevin Ray Byrd:

Kevin & Distance the best

Thank you for getting involved & doing your best with us!!  Lets TRANSCEND THE BULLSHIT & help humanity!!!

Please make a donation or become a sponsor.

“Giving money “as a form of expression” never felt so good!”

Wild Willpower PAC

Source LYNX graphic

“What is a Political Action Committee?” on the Federal Elections Committee website:

“Separate Segregated Funds” (SSFs):

“Buckley v. Valeo” Federal Elections Committee ruling:

Legal Information Institute’s website:

Cornell University’s website:

Dodge v. Ford case brief:

Definition of CORPORATION on Black’s Law Dictionary:

“Aggregate” on Black’s Law Dictionary:


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Learning from the Past to Prepare for the Future